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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-46

Online since Saturday, April 17, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Robust journal club in a teaching institute can have far-reaching effects p. 1
Sreenivasa Prasad Buduru
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_8_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A self-rating scale to measure states of tridosha in children p. 3
Suchitra S Patil, R Nagarathna, HR Nagendra
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_1_21  
Background: In Western psychology, inventories are available for state (temporary change) and trait (which is the basis of personality-character) aspects of personality. Ayurveda inventories for measuring tridosha (which is the basis of both trait and state of personality) in children have been developed and standardized, which pertains to trait aspect of personality. There is no scale to assess the state aspects of tridosha in children. Methods: The design of the study was descriptive type. Sampling design was purposive sampling. The 6-item Tridosha State Scale for Children (TSSC) was developed on the basis of translation of the Sanskrit verses describing the states of vāta, pitta, and kapha prakriti, which represent the temporary change in tridosha and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Āyurveda experts and three psychologists who helped in judging the items and assessed. The study was carried out in Bapuji School, Davangere. The scale was administered on 108 children in the age group of 8–12 years (mean age: 9.75 ± 1.30). Moreover, for 30 children, the scores are compared with Caraka Child Personality Inventory (CCPI) – a self-rating scale to measure the trait aspects of prakriti). Results: TSSC was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for Vataja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scales was 0.826, 0.885, and 0.911, respectively. Scores on Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scales were inversely correlated, suggesting that they are mutually exclusive. Correlation of scores on subscales with CCPI was 0.97, 0.92, and 0.94, respectively, for Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Conclusions: The state of tridosha in children can be measured reliably by this instrument. This can be utilized by clinicians and researchers to check the immediate effect of the interventions.
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Development and validation of self-recorded swasthya assessment scale p. 8
Prajna Paramita Panda, Shivakumar S Harti, Mangalagowri V Rao
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_3_21  
Background: The Self-Recorded Swasthya Assessment Scale (SRSAS) is intended to develop a comprehensive questionnaire to assess the health status of an individual. SRSAS has three sections, namely physical, mental, and social health. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire has been prepared based on physical, mental, and social health parameters. In section 1, the questions of the physical fitness component are derived from International Fitness Scale and the questions of physical ill-health component are prepared on the basis of Swastha criteria described in literature from Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Kashyapa Samhita. In section 2, the mental toughness questions are prepared based on Ayurveda parameters and MTQ-48 and mental ill-health questions are prepared from Ayurveda parameters and guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition. The health status will be assessed based on the self-recorded response of the subjects. The time frame for the questions is the PAST WEEK. The questionnaire is designed to assess subject's USUAL abilities in their routine environment. Results: The questionnaire was administrated on 117 individuals. The data collected were statistically analyzed for internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha and for sampling adequacy by Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) test. The Cronbach's alpha for the fitness group of questions and ill-health group of questions were 0.832 and 0.799, respectively. The KMO value for the fitness group of questions and ill-health group of questions were 0.791 and 0.588, respectively. Conclusion: The Cronbach's alpha and KMO value showing the internal consistency and sampling adequacy are acceptable. It is concluded that the questionnaire is reliable and valid to use to assess the health status of an individual according to Ayurveda.
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An analytical study to evaluate the safety of reusing of the vomited leech in leech therapy: A pilot study p. 13
Vijaykumar S Mane, Pradeep S Shindhe, Giridhar Vedantam, Harsha D Pednekar, Ramesh Killedar
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_5_21  
Background: Leech therapy is a point of attraction in the medical as well as in the scientific world due to its various outstanding properties, while studying the Ayurveda and scientific literature one can find difference, i.e., discarding after single use as per modern literature, but in Ayurveda, it can be reused after 7 days of leech therapy. Studies of such kind were not carried or published in any scientific journals, so ethical approval and developing scientific methods for validating the study were necessary, so a pilot study began with ethical clearance. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal count of leech saliva and blood emesis before and after leech therapy using disc diffusion method. Materials and Methods: Leeches were collected from the normal habitat from Mangalore region possessing the same weight and morphological characteristics as that of the Nirvisha Jalouka as mentioned in classics (Shanku-mukhi). The selected leeches were stored in well water having nonchlorinated with minimum bacterial load. The well water was selected from three geographical regions of Belagavi city, and among them, one sample was selected having minimal bacterial load. Ten patients with infectious skin diseases who were indicated for Jalaukavacharana (Vidradhi, Dushta-vrana) were selected. The experimental leech saliva was tested for total bacterial count (TBC) and total fungal count (TFC) before and on 8th day of application, along with venous blood of the patient and blood vomitus of leech after application was tested for TBC and TFC. Statistical analysis was done based on TFC and TBC before and after application. Results: TBC and TFC of leech saliva at 8th day and before application were similar which indicates the leech gut has destroyed the bacteria or inhibited the growth of bacteria. Conclusion: TBC and TFC help to produce evidence that after application of leech and proper vomiting will not allow the growth of bacteria. Hence, safely, it can be reused after 7 days.
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Safety study on novel ayurvedic nutritive powder – An experimental study p. 19
Vinuta Kulkarni, Rudramma R Hiremath, Sreenivasa Prasad Buduru, Veena Babu Kupati
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_2_21  
Introduction: It has been estimated that in India, 65%, i.e., nearly 80 million children under 5 years of age suffer from varying degrees of malnutrition. Most of the children fall into the pit of Malnutrition during the weaning phase. Mothers are expected to make this “weaning Bridge.” This includes utilization of “Supplementary Feeding Programs.” Many weaning foods are available which claims the specific dietary implementation. The development of a nutritive Powder in weaning children is need of hour. This study includes safety of novel Ayurvedic nutritive powder in Wistar rat pups. Aim: This study aims to evaluate its safety in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Ingredients selected were Mudga, Godhuma, Rakta Shali, Ragi, Trikatu, Yastimadhu, and Khanda Sharkara. Safety study of Nutritive Powder was done in 20 days old Wistar Rat pups for 90 days. Parameters selected are HISTOPATHOLOGICAL study and biochemical investigations. Results: No mortality and abnormal behavioral changes were found in rat pups during experimental study. No remarkable pathological changes were observed. Biochemical Parameters revealed significant decrease in blood sugar, serum urea, and alkaline phosphatase in test group when compared to control. Conclusion: Nutritive powder when administered in the dose of 40 g/Kg body weight of animal for 90 days. No mortality was seen in any animals of test group. No remarkable pathological changes were seen in histopathological study of liver and kidney. Significant decrease of blood glucose, serum urea serum alkaline phosphatase was seen in test group animals compared to control group animals.
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A study on the ayurveda intervention (Virechana - therapeutic purgation and Rasayana - rejuvenation) on molecular gene expression profiling in familial breast cancer patients p. 26
Akshay Shetty, Sreenivasa Prasad Buduru, Suyamindra S Kulkarni, Pramod B Gai, Pratibha Sambrekar
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_6_21  
Background: The study was conducted to assess the ayurvedic intervention Virechana - therapeutic purgation and Rasayana - rejuvenation on predisposed familial breast cancer expression profiling of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Materials and Methods: The total RNA was extracted from blood of five subjects of familial breast cancer predisposition patients using PAX Gene Blood RNA Kit who had undergone the ayurvedic intervention Virechana - therapeutic purgation and Rasayana - rejuvenation therapy. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The qPCR-based BRCA1 gene expression results were analyzed for fold variation based on Ct values using the following formula: 2 (−ΔΔCt), where ΔCt is the Ct (GOI) − avg.(Ct (HKG)), GOI is the gene of interest, and HKG is the housekeeping gene. Results: In one subject (S1), the upregulation (61.82) showed further increase (843.36) by therapeutic purgation and then decreased below the baseline level (11.3) in the rejuvenation phase. In three subjects (S2, S3, and S5), the upregulated genes (1488.87, 15825.9, and 19.16) showed down trend continuously till rejuvenation phase (1.92, 4.17, and 3.97) but not to downregulation. Another subject (S4) showed reversal of genetic expression, i.e., downregulated gene (−1) showed upregulation (237,900.70) continuously throughout the therapy, which is in conformity of the proposed hypothesis, i.e., biopurification (therapeutic purgation) followed by rejuvenation leads to upregulation of gene. Conclusion: With the available limited and diversified data, it may be concluded that therapeutic purgation followed by rejuvenation (Narasimha Rasayana) therapy exerted effect on gene expression, but further study needs to be conducted with more number of samples.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Role of ayurveda in the management of female infertility due to poly cystic ovarian syndrome with a history of bilateral ectopic pregnancy, right sided salpingectomy, and left sided hydrosalpinx: A clinical case report p. 33
Bharathi Dattaram Anvekar
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_4_21  
Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), fallopian tubal blockage, and repeated spontaneous abortions are some of the causes of female infertility. Hormonal treatment or drilling of ovaries, microsurgery of fallopian tubes, and in vitro fertilization are the accepted standard treatment procedures. In Ayurveda, the condition is correlated with named as Vandhyatva. Acharyas have described the causes as Garbhasrava, Beeja Dushti, and Mithya Ahara Vihara. Here, we report a case of infertility secondary to PCOS with a surgical history of emergency laparoscopic right-sided salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy. Methotrixate administration for left side ectopic pregnancy, consequently for second time and left-sided hydrosalpinx. The case was treated as per the classical reference which includes virechana karma, kala basthi, marsha nasya karma, and Uttara basthi karma. Music therapy, rasayana chikitsa, and yoga were incorporated as adjuvant therapy to achieve shuddha garbha sambhava samagri (pure factors of fertilization and conception). Adopted treatment plan has given good result with successful intrauterine pregnancy and birth of healthy female baby through cesarean section.
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An ayurvedic approach to a case of primary infertility p. 40
Asha Hosur, Swarda Ravindra Uppin
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_9_21  
Infertility is a multifactorial condition affecting both partners, of which the female contributes about 40% cases of infertile couples. Of all the various factors, the most frequently contributing factors are those of ovarian and uterine. Polycystic ovarian disease is the most common cause of an ovulatory infertility, being found in 75% of cases. It now proves to be a significant factor in female infertility with the prevalence of 0.6%–3.4% in infertile couples. While uterine or endometrial polyps are one among those that can affect the shape and functioning of the uterus, thereby leading to infertility. On an average, the prevalence of endometrial polyps can vary from 7.8% to 34.9%. The contemporary medical science extends hormonal and surgical intervention as the prime line of the management. Ayurvedic treatment modalities can bypass the surgical management to avoid the related burden and provide a fruitful outcome in such conditions. Here, we present a case of primary infertility with a known polycystic ovarian disease and sonologically diagnosed endometrial polyp. The case was successfully treated with Ayurvedic treatment modalities such as virechana karma, uttara basti, nasya karma, and shaman aushadi. The treatment course resulted in the regression of the polyp, re-established ovulation, and a successful conception with full-term normal labor.
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EVENT REPORT Top

Pallava 2019 - Unleashing the milestones - An event report p. 44
Aziz Arbar, Pankaja P Savanur, KH Veena, Kaveri Hulyalkar
DOI:10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_10_21  
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